MSc

Courses

There are currently seventeen courses available.

You can click on any of the course titles below to read more about the course content, any requirements and what we expect you to get out of studying that course

 • If you already know that you want to study with us, just fill in the form to the right to submit your enquiry.

 • Click to expand out the sections to read more about any of the courses below.


Advanced Human Genetics

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical scientists
  • Clinical scientists
  • Medical technical officers
  • Healthcare scientists
  • Nurses
  • Pharmacists
  • Doctors
  • Allied health professionals

When you have completed this course, you will be able to:

  • Appreciate the overall complexity of genomes in humans and other organisms and the nature of coding and non-coding sequences
  • Demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the normal process of production of proteins from DNA and how this can go wrong to cause mutation
  • Analyse, synthesise and summarise information – in particularly be able to interpret DNA sequence in terms of the genetic code and protein production,
    manipulation of the DNA sequence and analysis of pedigrees
  • Understand the nature of genetic variation in humans
  • Be able to interpret genetic changes and predict their clinical outcome
  • Demonstrate and in-depth understanding of how mutations act to cause clinical conditions.
  • Critically discuss current issues in molecular genetics
  • Use the Internet as a communication tool as well as a tool to find and evaluate information
  • Produce reports to professional standards
  • Produce materials for public presentation

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle.
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

Structure of a gene, Parts 1 and 2

  • Recognise the structure of nucleic acids and the steps from DNA to protein
  • Appreciate the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • Describe the principles of gene regulation

 

 

Genes in the Genome

  • Be familiar with the history and outcomes of the human genome project
  • Use a range of databases available to gain information about the human genome and human genetic disorders
  • Appreciate the different classes of non-coding DNA in the genome

DNA to RNA to protein Parts 1 and 2

  • Describe features of eukaryotic gene structure
  • Understand the production and processing of RNA during protein synthesis
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the genetic code

Inheritance

  • Recognise the major patterns of inheritance in humans
  • Determine carrier probabilities and recurrence risks for the different pedigrees

Low penetrance genes

  • Appreciate the differences between linkage and association
  • Research and present the genetic basis of a common genetic disorder

How genes go wrong

  • Classify mutations depending on their outcome
  • Appreciate the differing effects mutations can have in the cell
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the nomenclature of mutations
  • Develop a critical appraisal of which gene changes are pathogenic

Genotype to phenotype

  • Appreciate how genes may interact and compensate in causing a phenotype
  • Understand how mutations in different steps of protein synthesis may alter the clinical phenotype
  • Understand exceptional mechanisms such as methylation and triplet repeat expansion

Cancer Genetics

  • Differentiate between the different genetic contributions to cancer
  • Recognise the different mechanisms by which genes can cause cancer
  • Understand how cells become tumorigenic

Analysis of Nucleic Acids

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical scientists
  • Clinical scientists
  • Medical technical officers
  • Healthcare scientists
  • Nurses
  • Pharmacists
  • Doctors
  • Allied health professionals

When you have completed this course, you will be able to:

· Demonstrate a critical understanding of eukaryotic and prokaryotic mutation and their relevance to human health and disease

· Demonstrate an awareness of the methods of molecular biology

· Demonstrate a critical awareness of current methods for mutation detection and their applications

· Use the Internet as a communication tool as well as a tool to find and evaluate relevant information

· Produce reports to professional standards

· Produce materials for public presentations

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle.
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

Introduction to molecular genetics

  • Use URLs to access information on molecular biology and genetics.

Mutation

  • Recognise the mechanisms by which mutations occur.
  • Differentiate between different mutation classes and types.

 

General methods

  • Appreciate that nucleic acids can be isolated from a wide variety of materials.
  • Use restriction enzymes to cleave specified sequences of DNA.
  • Differentiate between Northern and Southern blotting and understand when they are used.
  • Demonstrate a critical awareness of the role of hybridisation in molecular biology including the labelling of use of probes to detect nucleic acids.
  • Design primers for a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reaction and be aware of the key role of PCR in the revolution in molecular genetics.

DNA sequencing

  • Use DNA databases to identify a DNA sequence.
  • Appreciate the role of DNA sequencing techniques in the understanding of gene structure.

Advanced PCR

  • Appreciate the contribution of PCR to contemporary advances in biomedical science laboratories.
  • Identify carriers for specific genetic conditions and diagnose trisomy in amniotic fluid.

Techniques for mutation scanning

  • Differentiate between mutation scanning and mutation detection.
  • Understand the principles of mutation scanning methods.
  • Develop a critical appraisal of different mutation scanning methods and determine when each should be used.

Techniques for the detection of specific mutations

  • Understand the principles of mutation detection methods.
  • Determine when different mutation detection methods should be used.
Antibiotics

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical Scientists
  • Infection Control Nurses – Link Nurses
  • Modern Matrons
  • Doctors including GPs
  • Those embracing management of the broader aspects of a pathology service

When you have completed this course, you will be able to:

  • Evaluate and show how the development of antibacterial agents, the parallel development of resistance patterns and factors are driving these changes.
  • Describe what the main classes of antibiotics are, their modes of action, different mechanisms of resistance to them and understand how resistance can develop.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the current antibiotic sensitivity testing methods in use and understand issues that affect interpretation of results, being able to interpret sensitivity testing results accurately and recognise anomalies.
  • Describe the range of considerations that impact upon the use of antibiotics and that can contribute to misuse and identify alternative candidate antibacterial substances as alternatives to current treatments.
  • Critically assess and consolidate information from a variety of sources including peer-reviewed scientific publications and then produce reports according to professional standards suitable for public presentations.
  • Engage in reasoned verbal and written discussion and debate.

Indicative Content:

Introduction to eLearning  

  • Use and navigate the functions of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)   
  • Explore the VLE tools

Topic 1: Antibiotics and the current context

  • Overview of antibiotics
  • History – timeline of use and timeline of emergent resistance
  • Why are we here and how did we get here?
  • Economics
  • New classes
  • Global resistance picture
  • Who is prescribing? – Overuse. What are the current problems and challenges? Over the counter and online purchase
  • Behaviours and non-compliance e.g. course completion, compliance, patient expectations

Topic 2: Classes of antibiotics and mode of action

  • Classes – what are they?
  • How they work
  • Includes spectrum

Topic 3: Mechanisms of bacterial resistance and how they develop

  • Enzymatic mechanisms
  • Physical changes of bacterium, e.g. efflux pumps, changes to binding sites, plasmid sharing/synergy
  • Intrinsic (chromosomal) resistance and acquired (plasmid-mediated) resistance
  • Structure-function mechanism of resistance

Topic 4: Laboratory methods in  antibiotics activity testing – limitations, strengths

  • Global methodologies: EUCAST, CLSI, BSAC, broth dilutions (colistin)
  • Disc and antibiotic gradient strip diffusion in agar
  • Automated
  • Gene probes

Topic 5: Practical considerations in the use of antibiotics

  • Patient considerations
  • Multidrug impacts
  • Long-term impacts on a patient
  • Modes of delivery – topical and systemic
  • Impact of patient pathways
  • Economics
  • Are they necessary?
  • Review of treatment and cessation
  • In country regulation
  • User expectations
  • Ethical considerations 
  • Antibiotic stewardship and expectation management
  • Collective responsibilities
  • Prescribing, personalised treatment
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Immunocompromised patients
  • Community resistance
  • General health
  • Collective responsibilities –from Trust to WHO (Global agreement)

Topic 6: Are there alternatives? 

  • Prevention alternatives
  • Better health / patient screening / patient awareness
  • Alternative treatments
  • Use of natural products / nutraceuticals: honey, garlic, cranberry, yoghurt, teas, spices / seeds
  • Infection management
  • New antibiotics

Blood Transfusion

Blood transfusion is a field where there have been, and continue to be, significant advances in science, technology and most particularly governance. This
course aims to provide you with a comprehensive overview of both the scientific and managerial aspects of blood transfusion. The course is intended to
equip both those with a transfusion background and those from other fields with practical tools to allow for an informed entry into the sphere of blood
transfusion management.

This is a professional course aimed at individuals from various healthcare backgrounds and aims to enable you to add to your existing knowledge of blood
transfusion and related issues or provide you with a strong introduction to the subject. There is a strong practical element to the course which will
require good organisational skills and the ability to communicate effectively with staff in a number of different roles.

This course has been designed for:

· Biomedical scientists seeking to become transfusion practitioners

· Those embracing management of the broader aspects of a pathology service or moving into managerial positions

· Other healthcare professionals, including nurses and doctors involved in transfusion.

When you have completed this course, you will be able to:

  • Recognise the major blood group systems and their relevance
  • Gain a clear understanding of the role of the National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT)
  • Understand the management of blood products and transfusion practice in an organisation
  • Provide staff training and competency issues
  • Appreciate standards, legislation, guidelines and governance issues

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle.
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

Blood group serology

  • Introduction
  • The structure and function of antigens and antibodies
  • ABO system
  • Other Clinically significant blood Group Systems
  • Manual Blood Grouping and Antibody Screening
  • Automated blood grouping methods

The role of National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT)

  • Introduction
  • Blood Components
  • Specialised blood products
  • Principles and practice of donor screening
  • The role of the blood service as a reference centre
  • Tissue and cord banking
  • Research into new areas

Blood stocks management and conservation

  • Who needs transfusion and the potential risks of transfusion?
  • The Risks of Transfusion
  • Blood components: Their shelf lives and storage conditions
  • Blood component inventory management and the Maximum Blood Order Schedule
  • Blood Stocks Management scheme
  • Appropriate Use and Alternatives to Transfusion

Blood transfusion management

  • Blood Transfusion Management
  • The Role of the National, Regional and Hospital Transfusion Committees
  • The Hospital Transfusion Team
  • The Transfusion Consultant, Transfusion Practitioner and Blood Bank / Transfusion Laboratory Manager
  • Policies and Procedures
  • Emergency Contingency and Major Incident Planning

Education training and competency

  • Why Education and Training in Blood Transfusion is essential
  • The Training Policy
  • The staff groups involved in delivery of Blood transfusion
  • Competency Assessment
  • Delivery of the Training
  • Recording of Training and Competency Assessment Records

Legislation, standards and guidelines

  • Legislation, Standards and Guidelines
  • The Blood Safety and Quality Regulations 2005
  • The Operational Impact Group (OIG)
  • Laboratory Standards
  • Inspections and Assessments
  • Circulars and Notifications

Haemovigilance and Clinical Governance

  • Haemovigilance
  • Reporting to SABRE
  • Reporting to SHOT
  • Clinical Governance
  • Clinical audit
  • Clinical audit in transfusion

Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis in Healthcare Settings

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical scientists
  • Clinical scientists
  • Medical technical officers
  • Healthcare scientists
  • Allied health professionals

On completion of this course, you will understand:

  • Physiochemical principles that are involved in chromatography and mass spectrometry
  • A critical appreciation of the parameters which contribute to a validated analysis and those which may be responsible for poor performance
  • Sensitivity and specificity. This course aims to explain how these requirements are obtained in practice

When you have completed this course, you will be able to:

  • Demonstrate a critical insight and comprehensive understanding of the physiochemical principles that are involved in chromatography and mass
    spectrometry
  • Show a critical appreciation of the parameters which contribute to a validated analysis and those which may be responsible for poor performance within
    healthcare
  • Demonstrate a clear understanding of the two vital aspects of these analyses; sensitivity and specificity
  • Critically evaluate the validation of an analytical procedure according to principles set out by regulatory authorities, typically those published by
    the EU and the USA. A clear understanding of the measurements required is essential
  • Read application methods, published results of investigations and regulatory documents in a critical and informative manner
  • Ensure that those who are performing routine clinical analyses will be more confident in their ability to maintain good practice
  • Decide on an appropriate method for a defined analysis, have the wherewithal to make a correct decision on which route to follow

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle.
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

Introduction

  • Introduction to Chromatography
  • Instrument types

HPLC

  • Introduction to HPLC
  • HPLC Equipment
  • Isocratic Elution
    • Isocratic Elution
    • Why Separation Occurs
    • Factors Affecting Resolution in HPLC
  • HPLC Columns
    • HPLC Columns
    • HPLC Separation Mode
    • Column Size and Flow Direction
  • Gradient Elution
    • Gradient Elution
    • Understanding Gradient Elution
    • High Pressure Mixing and Low Pressure Mixing
    • Gradient Profiles
  • Guide to Detectors used in Hospital Labs
    • Guide to Detectors used in Hospital Labs
    • UV‐VIS Detectors
    • Fluorescence Detection
    • Electrochemical Detection
    • Understanding the Concepts
  • Introduction to Integration
    • Introduction to Integration
    • Peak Table Parameters
    • Calibration of an HPLC Method
    • Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation

Gas Chromatography

  • Gas Chromatography
  • Parts of a Gas Chromatograph
  • Principles of separation
    • Parameters defining separation
  • Injection
  • Column and mobile gas phase
  • Temperature control and gradient: the GC oven
  • Detection (non‐ms)
  • Retention Index (Kováts index]
  • Linking Gas Chromatography to Mass Spectrometry
  • Sample Preparation
  • Resulting Chromatograms
  • Library Searching and the AMDIS application

Mass Spectrometry: Instrumental Techniques

  • Introduction
  • Ionisation source
  • Analyser
  • Ion Detection
  • The Mass Spectrum
  • Stable Isotopes and Mass Spectra
  • Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM)
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MSMS)

 

Mass Spectrometry: Data and Spectra

  • Running an LC‐MS Experiment
  • Data and spectral manipulation
  • EI Library searching
  • Multiple charges on an ion, transformation
  • Elemental composition from accurate mass and isotope determination
  • EI, in‐source, and tandem MS fragment mass spectra
  • Four ways of doing an MSMS experiment

Mass Spectrometry: Quantitative Analysis

  • Optimisation of sensitivity and specificity
  • Choice of Internal Standard
  • Choice of Analyser
  • Matrix Effects
  • Method Validation
  • Quantitative Analysis using Chromatography‐Mass Spectrometry
  • Calibration Curve
  • Validation parameters

Mass Spectrometry: Clinical Applications to Metabolite analysis

  • Diagnosis of Inborn Errors of Metabolism from Blood Spots
  • HPLC/MS Quantitative Analysis of Vitamin D Metabolites
  • Clinical Applications to Metabolite Analysis
  • Clinical Applications to Metabolite Analysis

POCT and developments in Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography

  • Chromatography nearer the patient and concepts of point of care testing
  • Applications of bench top mass spectrometry in clinical biochemistry

Clinical Data Interpretation

This course has been designed for:

· Biomedical scientists

· Clinical scientists

· Laboratory, hospital and health service managers

· Other healthcare professionals, including nurses, pharmacists and medical technical officers.

On completion of this course, you will be able to:

  • Communicate effectively with the multidisciplinary clinical team in a variety of healthcare settings
  • Understand the spectrum of tests available
  • Make recommendations for given tests
  • Interpret the data for effective doctor-patient actions
  • Have an appreciation of clinical data best practice & legislation & its applicability to laboratory medicine
  • Apply statistical process control rules to a set of data and take corrective action
  • Take critical oversight of how pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical variables of patient samples may impact on data outcomes and their
    interpretation
  • Interpret ROC curves and appreciate their significance
  • Devise an approach to assess human error
  • Identify the process associated with history taking and examination of the patient and the range of test options
  • Explain how different tests contribute to a diagnosis and recommend any additional tests could be undertaken to support that diagnosis
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how laboratory investigation informs treatment using external protocols
  • Demonstrate an awareness of the current standards and legislation that an organisation must meet in relation to information governance and show how
    they apply to patient data
  • Perform a literature‐based research and evaluation using the internet as a tool to find and evaluate relevant information
  • Effectively communicate information using suitable presentation and communication skills.
  • Produce reports according to professional standards using appropriate ICT tools; including the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
  • Perform effectively within a team environment and recognize and utilize other people’s contributions in groups discussion and provide valued input into
    group discussions
  • Demonstrate self-direction and clarity in approaching tasks and assignments.

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools

 

Introduction

  • Introduction
  • Introduction to the Medical History
  • Consultation Models
  • Assessing Patients in an Emergency

Multidisciplinary Teams

  • Multidisciplinary Teams
  • Integrated Care Pathways

Associated Diagnostic Tests

  • Associated Diagnostic Tests
  • Radiography
  • CAT Scans
  • Endoscopy
  • Echocardiography
  • Ultrasound
  • PET Scanning
  • MRI scanning
  • Electrocardiography

The Expanding Role of Clinical Diagnostics

  • The Expanding role of clinical Diagnostics
  • The Differential Diagnosis
  • Blood Sampling Considerations & Phases
  • Staff Competencies & Levels of Authorisation
  • Understanding the Normal Range & Reference Intervals
  • Reporting IT & Autovalidation
  • Quality control & Chart Interpretation
  • WECO, Westgard & Other Control Rules Sets
  • Sensitivity, Specificity & ROC Curves
  • What makes a good test?
  • Sources of Valid & Reliable Information
  • Putting it all Together

Governance & Confidentiality

  • Governance & Confidentiality
  • Records Management

Presentation and Self-Evaluation

  • Presentation
  • Self-Evaluation

Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

There have been many advances in the understanding of breast cancer in recent years together with an increase in the diagnostic tools available to the
histopathologist in order to aid diagnosis. This course aims to introduce the student to some of these state-of-the-art advances in addition to a
comprehensive view of breast disease, particularly breast cancer. Students will gain a general understanding of breast disease, of basic histological
techniques, of the importance of various methods used to diagnose breast disease and the role of genetics and molecular biology in breast cancer as a
whole, and in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

This course has been designed for:

· Biomedical scientists

· Clinical scientists

· Allied health care professionals

· Doctors, especially trainee pathologists

· Nurses, especially breast care nurses

· Radiographers, especially mammographers

On completion of this course, you will be able to:

  • Understand the nomenclature of benign and malignant breast disease
  • Be aware of current methods of diagnosis and their background
  • Understand the current view of the genetic basis of breast cancer

 

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools

Introduction

  • Normal breast development, anatomy and histology
  • Epidemiology, risk factors and carcinogenesis of breast cancer
  • Methods of detection of breast cancer including clinical signs and asymptomatic detection

Pathology of Breast Cancer

  • Handling of breast specimens, histological techniques
  • Benign breast disease
  • Breast cancer types and nomenclature
  • Metastasis

Diagnostic Techniques

Diagnostic techniques including imaging, Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA), Wide bore needle biopsies (WBN) and the surgical approach to breast cancer

 

Specialist Diagnostic Techniques I

  • Specialist diagnostic techniques concentrating on immunohistochemical methods
  • To include current procedures to detect HER-2, oestrogen and progesterone receptors
  • Future diagnostic techniques to include tissue microarrays

Specialist Diagnostic Techniques II

  • Molecular pathology of breast cancer
  • To concentrate on assessment of p53 status and BRCA1/2 genes
  • Methodology to include in-situ hybridisation, PCR and DNA sequencing
  • Future diagnostic techniques to include proteomics and molecular profiling

Governance and Risk Management

This course has been designed for:

· Biomedical scientists

· Clinical scientists

· Laboratory, hospital and health service managers

· Health care professionals including matrons, nurses, paramedics and pharmacists

· Quality managers

· Health and safety managers

· Risk and governance managers.

On completion of this course, you will be able to:

  • Demonstrate a critical insight and comprehensive understanding of the concept of governance, the scope of its applicability and how governance is
    managed practically in an organisation
  • Demonstrate a critical awareness of the current standards and legislation that the organisation must meet in relation to governance and risk and
    discuss how the organisation achieves those standards
  • Develop a practical toolkit for assessing, managing and reducing risks, ensuring business continuity and investigating incidents and complaints and
    implementing remedial, corrective and preventive actions
  • Explore and critically evaluate the discipline of risk management and to demonstrate how this contributes to the health and safety culture of an
    organisation

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle.
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

What is Governance?

  • What are governance & risk management?
  • Establishing a Culture of Governance
  • Aspects of Risk & Governance
  • Introduction to Standards and Guidelines
  • Regulators and Inspectors

A Culture of Governance

  • A Culture of Governance
  • Organisational structures / responsibilities
  • Board assurance framework
  • Managing complaints

 

 

The Human Element

  • Risk Management: Human Errors
  • What is risk management?
  • Human errors – active and latent failures – system failures
  • Understanding the risk management process: Airline industry -a model of best practice?
  • Safety in the workplace
  • Risk management in healthcare: how is it achieved?

Legal Aspects of Risk Management

  • The Law: legislation and reporting
  • Accessing Legislation
  • Key UK Legislation
  • Making and Keeping the Workplace Safe
  • European Union Directives
  • Authorities and Agencies

Statutory Reporting

  • Statutory Reporting and the Monitoring of Risk
  • Mitigating the risk
  • Key lines of Enquiry (KLOE)

Risk Management in Practice: the tools

  • Introduction: Tools for Risk Management
  • Risk assessment
  • Grading a Risk
  • Types of Risk Assessment
  • Incident reporting procedures
  • Root cause analysis tool
  • Report writing and Action Plan (Corrective/Preventive Actions)
  • Assurance

Final Report

  • PowerPoint presentation
  • Public contributions to the course

Immunocytochemistry in Diagnostic Cellular Pathology

Immunocytochemistry (ICC) has become a critically important area of diagnostic pathology services, adding crucial information that guides patient pathways
in primary diagnosis, prognostication and prediction of therapy response.

Staff groups working in ICC service laboratories require an extensive knowledge-base and skill-mix to enable them to work effectively and deliver a safe
and effective service. Much of this knowledge and these skills are specific to ICC but it is also recognised that ICC-generated results are critically
dependent upon pre-analytical processes and procedures carried-out on patient samples. This course endeavours to ensure that students who undertake it gain
a comprehensive understanding of current ICC methodologies and applications, and also the fundamental cellular pathology processes (including the above
mentioned pre-analytical steps) that underpin them.

The course will complement the existing portfolio of courses especially in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer, Lung Disease, Renal Disease and Robotics and
Automation.

This course has been designed for:

· Biomedical scientists

· Clinical scientists

· Research scientists

· Laboratory service managers

· Other healthcare professionals, including assistant medical officers and assistant practitioners.

On completion of this course, you will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of how histological and cytological preparation and the effect factors such as fixation, processing, section cutting and
    slide drying critically influence ICC
  • Demonstrate a critical appreciation of ICC methodology including its historical perspectives, the use of modern ICC techniques, antigen retrieval
    procedures, the use of antibodies as tools in the clinical diagnostic setting, and the value and limitations of automated staining systems
  • Interpret and critically evaluate data obtained from internal quality assurance systems and external quality assessment programmes
  • Demonstrate a critical understanding of the utility and central importance of ICC in disease diagnosis and patient treatment stratification and make
    informed interpretations based on staining
  • Demonstrate self-direction and clarity in approaching tasks and assignments.
  • Be able to critically assess and consolidate information from a variety of sources including peer-reviewed scientific publications.
  • Engage in reasoned verbal and written discussion and debate.
  • Produce reports according to professional standards.
  • Produce materials for public presentations.

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

The Fundamentals of Histological Preparation

  • Fixation in the preparation of sections for histological diagnosis
  • Processing of tissues to paraffin wax
  • Understand the importance of good microtomy and slide drying in the preparation of sections for immunocytochemical analysis
  • Identify artefacts in paraffin sections which cause problems in the interpretation of immunocytochemical sections

 

 

Antibodies as ICC Tools

  • Antibody structure and function.
  • Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies: the principles behind the production of these reagents, and their advantages and disadvantages when used as ICC
    tools.
  • Antibody binding mechanisms with reference to molecular structure and their relationship to the concepts of avidity, affinity, sensitivity and
    specificity.
  • Antibody cross-reactivity and causative factors.
  • Appropriate handling and storage requirements of antibodies and other labile ICC reagents, and reagent audit trail requirements of laboratory
    accreditation bodies.
  • Antibody titre, dilution, antibody incubation time and temperature and their effect on ICC staining quality.
  • Primary antibody selection, validation and optimisation and the critical differences between concentrates and ready-to-use reagents.

ICC staining techniques

  • Historical context in which modern ICC staining methods have their basis.
  • Mechanisms involved in the universally used staining methods, to include avidin-biotin complex and labelled polymer based methods, and the advantages
    and disadvantages of each.
  • Critical appraisal of techniques.
  • Troubleshooting of problems in an evidence-based manner.

Antigen retrieval

  • Importance of antigen retrieval techniques.
  • Hypotheses regarding the mechanism and rationale of antigen retrieval methods.
  • Enzymatic digestion and heat mediated antigen retrieval methods.
  • Identification of over and under antigen retrieved ICC preparations.
  • Critical evaluation of the effect of a comprehensive range of antigen retrieval solutions.

Quality assurance

  • Principles and importance of internal quality control and quality assurance systems.
  • External quality assessment schemes and their value in quality management.
  • Procedure for introducing new primary antibodies, reagents and methodologies, including in-house validation and evaluation, and the use of appropriate
    control material.
  • Internal audits, the checking control slides and making amendments to the standard operating procedures.
  • Problems of non-specific, inappropriate staining and artifacts; identification of their causes and undertaking corrective trouble-shooting procedures
    for their reduction or elimination.
  • Appropriate storage requirements of antibodies and reagents, the significance of expiry dates, and the importance of batch to batch validation.
  • Problems associated with prolonged section storage and effects on antigen preservation.
  • Forms of certification and control to include: Conformité Européenne (CE) marking, Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) approval and In-vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical device directive.

Automation

  • General and specific principles, and the advantages and disadvantages of automated ICC systems.
  • Types and modes of action of automated immunostainers; their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Future developments in automated ICC.

 

Immunocytochemical applications in practice

  • Primary antibody panels.
  • Informed interpretations and reporting of staining results.
  • Principles and importance of ICC in four major areas of diagnostic pathology:
    • tumours of unknown type
    • carcinomas of unknown origin
    • breast pathology diagnosis, prognosis and treatment stratification
    • haematopathology diagnosis

 

This is a professional course for individuals involved with managing quality systems in the laboratory. It aims to enable you to organise, co-ordinate and
manage quality systems, including supporting and training the quality team. The course is practice-based and you need to be able to work within a quality
team to complete the activities. The course is ideally suited to students who have completed the Biomed Quality Systems Management course or a similar
quality training course.

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical scientists
  • Clinical scientists
  • Laboratory and hospital managers
  • Health service managers
  • Nurses
  • Pharmacists
  • Medical technical officers

On completion of this course, students will understand how to:

  • Demonstrate an advanced ability to plan, organise and manage a quality management system
  • Demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the position of the improvement cycle within QMS and use methods to identify and implement areas for
    improvement
  • Exhibit competency in the delivery of training in QMS

On completion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Set quality objectives, plan, monitor performance, support and train, in order to successfully integrate a quality management system
  • Perform effectively within a team environment, and recognise and utilise other people’s contributions in group processes; perform team delegation,
    development and management within an environment where change occurs
  • Plan and manage your own professional development
  • Communicate effectively, using a range of media, including preparing strategic plans and reports; including listening to, negotiating with, and
    persuading and influencing others
  • Demonstrate self-direction and clarity in tackling and solving problems
  • Act autonomously in planning and implementing tasks at a professional level
  • Use Moodle and the internet to support learning and work

 

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

 

Introduction

  • Personal development planning – skills and processes
  • Analysis of a quality manager’s job description
  • Self-assessment of generic and management skills
  • Personal development planning

Designing and Implementing a Quality Management System in Your Laboratory

  • Organising and integrating a quality management system in your laboratory
  • The process-based approach to quality management systems
  • The different processes involved in a quality management system
  • Standards and accreditation
  • Approaches and methods to integrate processes of a quality management system and documentary evidence required to meet compliance
  • Development of a strategy to implement QMS including project management methods to organise and co-ordinate the work

Making Change Happen

  • Making change happen
  • The process of evaluation as part of QMS
  • Managing evaluation activities
  • The management and control of documents
  • The process of continual improvement as part of QMS
  • Approaches to managing change
  • Identifying areas for improvement through different processes
  • Models of change
  • Developing a case for improvement

Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis

  • Working together
  • Working as team leader and team member
  • How to develop and support groups
  • Establishing and maintaining co-operative working relationships
  • Developing people: coaching
  • Running effective meetings
  • Training others
  • Designing and running workshops

Putting It All Together

  • Putting it all together
  • Consolidation review and reflection of personal development
  • Consolidation, review and reflection of quality management knowledge and skills

Pulmonary pathology is the basis for lung disease, and clinical manifestations and complications are a direct result of pulmonary pathology. This course
will provide an invaluable insight into pulmonary disease processes for doctors and medical students, nurses, physiotherapists, researchers and
pharmacologists with a special interest in lung disease. From a different perspective, many aetiological agents may produce pathogenesis effects that
result in pulmonary pathology. The course would therefore be immensely helpful for epidemiologists, legal professionals with an interest in industrial lung
diseases, and physiologists. Finally, biomedical scientists and allied health care professionals would greatly benefit in understanding pulmonary
pathology, including the close inter-relationship between aetiology, pathogenesis, and complications in contributing to the overall histopathological
features and rationale for special investigations.

Respiratory disease and lung disorders constitute a significant proportion of disease states in the general population. This course includes an overview of
lung function tests together with their significance, using case studies to illustrate the findings. Correlation between the pathophysiologic mechanisms,
pathologic features, clinical symptoms and signs, pulmonary function and diagnostic tests is made. General treatments are considered. A number of specific
conditions are considered in order to show the importance of correlating pathophysiology and pulmonary function and diagnostic testing in pulmonary disease
states.

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical scientists
  • Clinical scientists
  • Allied health professionals
  • Doctors, especially junior/trainee pathologists
  • Nurses
  • Paramedics

When you have completed this course, you will be able to:

· Recognise the aetiological processes and risk factors of pulmonary pathology

· Comprehend pathogenetic mechanisms whereby aetiological factors and risk factors contribute to histopathological processes of disease

· Comprehend the histopathology of respiratory disease

· Demonstrate an awareness of investigative tools, disease progression and outcomes

· Use the Internet as a communication tool as well as a tool to find and evaluate information

  • Produce reports to professional standards
  • Produce materials for public presentations

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

Basic medical sciences

This will provide a background to relevant pathological disorders of the lung, and their pathogenesis.

  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Embryology

Congenital disease

The congenital diseases of the lung will be examined systematically and in-depth, and include:

  • Macroscopic features
  • Microscopic features
  • Relevant pathophysiology

Diseases include:

  • Pulmonary Agenesis or Hypoplasia
  • Bronchopulmonary Abnormalities
  • Pulmonary Abnormalities
  • Mucus Secretion Abnormalities
  • Pulmonary Vessel Abnormalities
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Newborn
  • Idiopathic

Obstructive airways disease

A detailed analysis of obstructive airways disease will be presented. This will include the aetiology, pathogenesis, macroscopic and microscopic appearance
of the disease processes, and potential complications that may be clinically manifested.

Examples will be drawn from:

  • Emphysema
  • Acute Bronchitis
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Asthma
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Atelectasis vs Collapse

Pneumonia

The different forms of pneumonia will be categorised and examined. This will include:

  • Aetiological factors and pathogenesis of the disease processes
  • Relevant macroscopic and microscopic appearances
  • Complications that may be clinically manifested

Disease types include:

  • Acute Bacterial Pneumonia
  • Aspiration Pneumonia
  • Viral Pneumonia
  • Chronic Bacterial Pneumonia
  • Non – Infective Pneumonia
  • Mycoplasma and Rickettsial Infections
  • Pulmonary Mycoses
  • Protozoa
  • Helminths

Interstitial lung disease

This complex and evolving subject will be systematically evaluated and categorised. The aetiology, pathogenesis, macroscopic and microscopic features, and
complications of the disease processes will be presented. Mention will be made of controversial areas, particularly concerning aetiology and pathogenetic
mechanisms.

  • Background
  • Known Causes
    • Infections
    • Chronic Occupational Diseases
    • Diffuse Alveolar Damage
    • Iatrogenic causes
  • Unknown Causes
    • Interstitial Pneumonias
    • Helminths
    • Connective Tissue Diseases
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
    • Alveolar Proteinosis
    • Eosinophilic Pneumonia
    • Goodpasture’s Disease
    • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
    • Idiopathic Pulmonary Haemosiderosis
    • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Vasculitis and vascular disorders

A detailed overview and analysis of vasculitis disorders will be systematically evaluated. This will include the aetiology, pathogenesis, macroscopic and
microscopic features of the disease processes.

Disease types:

  • Large Vessel Vasculitis
  • Medium Size Vessel Vasculitis
  • Small Vessel Vasculitis
    • ANCA-associated
    • Immune Complex-associated
  • Paraneoplastic Small Vessel Vasculitis
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Pulmonary Infarction

Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia

This complex and evolving subject will be systematically evaluated and categorised. The aetiology, pathogenesis, macroscopic and microscopic features and
complications of the disease process will be presented.

Mention will be made of:

  • Controversial areas, particularly concerning aetiology and pathogenesis.
  • The plethora of different disease processes that can produce pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia will be explored, and correlated with relevant
    pathological entities in other chapters of this course.

Neoplasms of the lung

The neoplasms of the lung will be analysed including the concepts of benign, malignant and secondary tumours. The aetiology, precursor lesions, macroscopic
and microscopic features, and spread will be described. Finally, evaluation of the clinical options in sampling for diagnostic material and patterns of
immunocytochemistry for diagnosis shall be analysed.

  • Benign Tumours
  • Malignant Tumours
    • Primary Tumours
      • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
      • Adenocarcinomas
      • Neuroendocrine neoplasia
      • Large Cell Carcinoma
      • Adenosquamous Carcinoma
      • Other Primary Tumours
    • Secondary Tumours

The pluera

The macroscopic and microscopic disease entities of pleura will be examined, including aetological factors. For malignant tumours of the pleura:

  • Pleural Effusion
  • Pneumothorax
  • Pleural Plaques
  • Pleural Tumours
    • Benign
    • Malignant
    • Metastatic

Management of Healthcare Associated Infection

The profile of hospital-acquired infection, and the related topic of antimicrobial resistance, has never been higher.

This course aims to introduce the student to the fascinating rubric of interactions between the patient, the microbes and the factors in the hospital
environment that can result in an increased risk of hospital acquired infections. It will also provide an understanding of the role of the infection
control team in preventing and controlling these infections and of how standards of infection control are becoming a very useful litmus test for assessing
the quality of patient care for the whole healthcare organisation.

This course has been designed for:

  • Infection control link staff
  • Modern matrons
  • Biomedical scientists, Clinical scientists
  • Doctors
  • Nurses
  • Health service managers
  • Paramedics
  • Allied health professionals

On completion of this course, you will be able to:

  • Identify, summarise and critique the structure and regulation of infection control within the hospital setting.
  • Identify the systems and accountability for infection control that are in place to prevent and control hospital acquired infection.
  • Define and examine the scope and priorities of the infection control programme (link to the Infection Control Team).
  • Evaluate the effect of Clinical Governance within the infection control setting, the statutory duty to improve quality and the contribution of external
    bodies to this process.
  • Examine and assess the organisation and operation of the a multidisciplinary Infection Control Team within the health care setting.
  • Assess critically how infection control practice is monitored and managed and how change is implemented.
  • Identify and evaluate how theory informs appropriate infection control practice.
  • Understand the concepts of sterility and sterilisation.
  • Understand the outline statistics of sterilisation: D-values, bioburden, sterility assurance levels.
  • Know the common methods of attaining sterility: Steam and dry heat; their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Describe alternative sterilisation methods.
  • Know what disinfection achieves.
  • Know the main methods of achieving disinfection: heat and chemicals.
  • Know the main factors affecting quality assurance of chemical disinfection.
  • Have a brief knowledge of the main chemical disinfectants and their properties, including important safety issues.
  • Know the general susceptibility of micro-organisms: viruses, vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores, mycobacteria and fungi.

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

Current affairs in infection control

· The current global and national infection control issues, recognition and understanding of the complexity of disease control including economic,
political, and philosophical issues.

Identity & spread of microorganisms

· The microorganisms relevant to healthcare associated infection and their prevention and control, the various infections they cause their sources and
routes of transmission.

Investigation, prevention and control of healthcare associated infection

  • The investigations that are needed in a known or suspected outbreak.

· The principles of prevention and control of healthcare associated infection.

Principles of infection control in clinical practice

· The rationale for employing the principles of infection control and to apply theory to practice.

Change management in infection control

· The mechanisms of change within the healthcare setting and the complex process of change.

Disinfection & sterilisation

· The methods of decontamination used to sterilise or disinfect items of equipment, the environment, patient’s skin and mucosa and healthcare workers’
hands.

· The relative advantages and applications of different disinfection and sterilisation methods.

The infection control team

· The multidisciplinary role of the Infection Control Team in the prevention and control of infection, how this has developed over time, how it
identifies problems, initiates actions based on evidence, follows up issues and how it critically considers the ways in which infection control knowledge
is disseminated and integrated into practice.


 

This is a professional and practise-based course and aims to support your development of skills, knowledge and attitudes as a member of the learning and
development team, and, specifically to enable you to:

  • Analyse learning and development in your organisation and manage the provision of training and development interventions
  • Align learning and development to organisational, departmental and individual needs
  • Develop your own skills and reflective practise as a training professional through the use of a portfolio.

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical scientists
  • Clinical scientists
  • Laboratory, hospital and health service managers
  • Training managers.

On completing this course successfully you will be able to:

  • Critically reflect on your capabilities as a member of the learning and development team
  • Understand the organisational requirements of the administration and management of learning and development
  • Identify the learning and development needs of the department to meet organisational requirements at occupational and individual level
  • Plan how the identified learning needs might be met
  • Manage the delivery of training by selecting appropriate learning interventions and resources in a timely and cost effective way
  • Measure training effectiveness and communicate the results within your organisation
  • Understand the changing role of learning and development in the organisation and the changing role of the training professional

 

 

 

Indicative Content

Two face-to-face workshops

  • Workshop 1: introduction to the course, the VLE Platform (Moodle) and your tutor.
  • Workshop 2: Managing and delivering training
  • Guided online study which is structured in the following topics:

Getting started

  • Introduction
  • Organising your study
  • TerminologyCourse map
  • My portfolio
  • Building portfolios
  • Summary

Exploring the role of the training officer

  • Introduction
  • Profiling yourself
  • Opportunity to build on strengths
  • The role of the training officer
  • The Training Team
  • The role of the mentor
  • Summary

Learning needs analysis

  • Introduction
  • What is learning needs analysis?
  • Why conduct a learning needs analysis?
  • Reasons to conduct a learning needs analysis
  • How to conduct a learning needs analysis
  • Summary

Diversity, equal opportunities and human rights

  • Introduction
  • What is equality and diversity?
  • Why is equality and diversity important?
  • Discrimination Institutional discrimination
  • Case studies
  • The legal context
  • Challenging discrimination in the training context
  • Human rights
  • Summary

Developing the training plan

  • Introduction Activities 5.1 and 5.2
  • Methods to deliver learning and development
  • Activities 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5
  • Personal learning requirements
  • Documentation and administration management
  • Assessment
  • The role of feedback and reflection in professional development
  • Summary

Measuring effectiveness

  • Introduction
  • Why measuring effectiveness?
  • Methods of Evaluation
  • Measurable performance indicators
  • Summary

The role of learning and development in the changing organisation

  • Introduction
  • Activities 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3
  • The changing role of the training professional
  • Your changing role: final progress report
  • Summary

Point of Care Testing

Biomedical laboratories and the Pathology Services in particular, has become the subject of major modernisation proposals. These proposals recognise

  • The need for centralised laboratory services supported by laboratory information management systems and semi- and full automation robotics to cope with
    the predicted increasing demand from GPs for routine tests of low complexity.
  • Technological advances that will make it increasingly feasible to do many tests at the bedside or outpatient clinic, as well as to perform more
    specialised tests associated with molecular biology and DNA testing.

POCT is thus a rapidly expanding area in both the range of investigations available and the complexity of the service to be provided.

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical scientists
  • Clinical scientists
  • Allied health professionals
  • Pharmacists

On completing this course successfully you will be able to:

  • Be able to critically select, organise and manage a POCT solution within a hospital environment or primary care setting.
  • Use this understanding to prepare an innovative proposal for acquisition of a POCT solution.
  • Be able to demonstrate an awareness of the variety of POCT analyses available for both primary and secondary care.
  • Have a detailed knowledge of the analytical principles of these analyses.
  • Use this knowledge to critically evaluate the clinical usefulness of POCT solutions and their limitations.
  • Be able to demonstrate an awareness and understanding, in the context of POCT, of the concepts of electronic data acquisition, record management and
    connectivity.
  • Have detailed knowledge of the relevant industry protocols developed for this.
  • Use the Internet as a communication tool as well as a tool to find and evaluate relevant information.
  • Produce reports according to professional standards.
  • Produce materials for public presentations.

Indicative Content

 

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

Introduction to POCT

What is Point of Care Testing?

· A description of POCT as a diagnostic tool. This will include

  • Why POCT should be used;

· Its advantages, disadvantages and limitations;

  • The concept of test clusters;

· How to select, organise and manage any POCT solution with particular reference to recent Medical Devices Agency bulletins.
What tests can be done in a POCT setting?

  • What POCT analyses are available?
  • The range of analyses employed within traditional categories (Biochemistry, Haematology and Microbiology) and clinically centred test clusters
    (Diabetes, Critical care, Cardiac care, Drug investigations).
  • Where and why they are used.
  • Whether they are suitable or not for their potential use.
  • What the basic analytical principle of these analyses is.

POCT and Accreditation

  • POCT and Accreditation

Connectivity and Interconnectivity

  • Data acquisition in POCT.
  • The rationale for data acquisition, in particular electronic acquisition.
  • A brief description of connectivity and interconnectivity.
  • Options for positive patient identification of results, electronic transfer of results to a central record and the development of industry standards to
    facilitate this.

Conclusion

  • Putting it all together

Quality Systems Management

With the increasing emphasis on accountability within the public sector, and the requirement to satisfy the accreditation criteria of several scrutinising
bodies, it is imperative that organisations adopt a systematic approach to quality management. Hitherto the emphasis on achieving accreditation has meant
that the concept of quality and quality systems in general have received less attention. However a properly managed quality system can form the framework
to address many accreditation issues, as well as providing real opportunities for reducing error and fostering a culture of continual improvement.

The success of a quality management system depends on the involvement of staff at all levels. This course covers the meaning of quality, the basis of
accreditation requirements, the role of internal audit. It also gives practical guidance on the design and performance of audit, process analysis, and
managing non-compliance.

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical scientists
  • Clinical scientists
  • Laboratory, hospital and health service managers

· Other healthcare professionals, including nurses, pharmacists and medical technical officers

  • Quality managers
  • Health and safety managers
  • Risk and governance managers.

On completion of this course, you will be able to:

  • Understand the meaning of quality in terms of the products and / or services provided by their organisation
  • See their procedures as processes
  • Use statistical process control to help control and analyse processes
  • Get more value from data obtained from internal quality assessment and external quality assessment programmes
  • Set up an internal quality audit programme
  • Prepare audit checklists
  • Perform internal quality audits
  • Raise non-compliance notes and implement corrective actions
  • Perform a customer survey.

 

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

 

 

 

Meaning of Quality

  • Understand the meaning of quality and apply it to the products and services provided by own organisation.
  • Determine important quality features of products and services provided by own organisation.
  • Prepare a quality policy (or review existing quality policy) of own organisation.
  • Based on quality policy, prepare measurable objectives for your organisation.

Quality assurance

  • Understand the meaning and importance of quality assurance.
  • Prepare flow chart(s) of major processes involved in your organisation.
  • Consider critical control points in processes and whether or not they are being adequately managed.
  • Understand how to achieve most benefit from performance of internal quality control (IQC), internal quality assessment (IQA) and external quality
    assessment (EQA).
  • Brief introduction to statistical analysis of quantitative internal quality control data using Westgard rules.

Accreditation

  • Have awareness of the different accreditation standards, e.g., CPA, ISO 17025, ISO 9001 and to understand their basic requirements.
  • Understand the requirements of the particular Standard (usually CPA) relevant to the student’s organisation.

Internal quality audit

  • Understand what internal audits are and the benefits of performing them.
  • Understand how to set up an audit programme.
  • Understand the requirements of an internal auditing system including.
    • how to select auditors.
    • how to prepare an audit schedule.
    • how to structure audits.
    • how to pre-plan audits.
  • Understand how to conduct an audit including.
    • Having an opening meeting with the auditee.
    • Performing the inspection.
    • Writing the report.
    • Holding a closing meeting with the auditee.
  • Non-compliance notes.
  • Understand the purpose of non-compliance notes.
  • Understand how to document non-compliances.
  • Understand how to resolve non-compliances.
  • Be able to perform root cause analysis and implement appropriate corrective actions.

Audit checklists

  • Understand how to prepare checklists.
  • Collaboratively prepare a set of checklist for use in the student’s organisation.

Continual improvement

  • Understand what continual improvement is.
  • Understand how to use Quality Improvement Notes to implement improvements.

Performing an audit

  • Prepare an audit checklist.
  • Perform an internal audit.
  • Write up non-compliance notes and quality improvement notes.
  • Prepare an audit report.

Customer liaison

  • Understand the importance of liaising with customers to:
    • know their requirements
    • know their level of satisfaction with the service provide
  • Develop a customer service strategy to improve liaison with customers and to determine customers requirements and their level of satisfaction.
  • Undertake a customer survey, analyse the results and submit a report of the findings.
  • Show an awareness of how improvements might be made in the organisation to raise the level of customer satisfaction.

Renal Disease

Adequate renal function is vital to the well-being of the body and renal failure is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. The kidney is a complex
organ with numerous functions that impinge on the metabolism of the body and the functions of other major organs. Consequently, there are many different
diseases that can affect the kidney and these involve many different pathological processes. The study of renal disease is therefore a useful tool in the
understanding of basic pathological processes as well as an important means of investigating and subsequently treating debilitating and dangerous human
diseases.

This course has been designed for:

  • Biomedical scientists
  • Clinical scientists
  • Allied health professionals
  • Doctors, especially junior/trainee pathologists
  • Nurses
  • Paramedics

When you have completed this course, you will be able to:

· Understand the changes that occur in renal failure and their effects on the body

· Have a detailed knowledge of the classification and pathology of diseases of the glomeruli, the renal tubulo-intersitium, the renal vasculature, and
of the developmental disorders of the kidney

· Have a detailed knowledge of the classification of benign and malignant tumours of the kidney

· Demonstrate an awareness of appropriate investigative tools and use these skills, with critical insight, to evaluate findings of case studies and
formulate innovative proposals

· Use the Internet as a communication tool as well as a tool to find and evaluate relevant information

  • Produce reports to professional standards
  • Produce materials for public presentations

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

The normal kidney

· An introduction to the subject covering the anatomy and physiology of the normal kidney. It includes information on the laboratory techniques used
in the investigation of renal disease. This topic requires completion before the other topics are revealed.

Renal failure

· An introduction to the classification and consequences of renal failure. It includes detailed information on the signs and symptoms of renal failure
and why they occur.

 

 

Glomerulonephritis

· A detailed overview of the classification of these diseases of the glomeruli. It includes the macroscopical and microscopical changes that occur in
the kidney in these disease processes.

Glomerular diseases excluding glomerulonephritis

· A detailed overview of diabetes mellitus and amyloidosis; the two glomerular diseases that are not part of the spectrum of glomerulonephritis. It
includes the macroscopical and microscopical changes that occur in the kidney and other major organs.

Tubulointerstitial diseases

· A detailed overview of the classification of these diseases that involve both the tubules and the interstitium of the kidney. It includes the
macroscopical and microscopical changes that occur in the kidney in these disease processes.

Vascular diseases

· A detailed overview of the classification of these diseases that involve the vessels of the kidney. It includes the macroscopical and microscopical
changes that occur in the kidney in these diseases.

Developmental disorders of the kidney

· An introduction to general concepts of embryological development and the specifics of renal development. A detailed overview of the classification
of developmental disorders that can occur in the kidney. It includes the macroscopical and microscopical changes that occur in the kidney in these
disorders.

Tumours of the kidney

· An introduction to general concepts of neoplasia. A detailed overview of the classification of renal tumours. It includes the macroscopical and
microscopical appearances of the important renal tumours.


Robotics and Automation

Major developments in automation and robotics have been triggered as a result of analytical breakthroughs in the use of non-radioactive labels and
immunometric techniques, and these have had a profound effect on the way that clinical chemistry laboratories operate. Robotic components are more robust
and reliable and computer control has led to the much better control of processes so that timing, incubation temperatures, addition of reagents and
measurement of signals is highly precise.

However whilst robotics and automation have many potential benefits for the laboratory, the ability to be able to make most use of these requires skills in
understanding all the steps in processing a sample; identifying which steps can be automated; identifying where the greatest benefits will lie; and
understanding how to introduce the steps in a prioritised order into the laboratory.

This course has been created to equip students with the necessary tools to develop an in-depth perspective of the operation and management of an automated
laboratory and help them through the process of choosing and purchasing automated systems and robotics.

This course has been designed for:

· Biomedical scientists wishing to get a broader knowledge of automation and robotic systems in pathology;

· Those wishing to gain experience in the evaluation of robotic systems;

· Those wishing to gain management experience in the evaluation, purchase and evaluation of automated and robotic systems;

· Medical students and clinicians moving into pathology departments.

When you have completed this course, you will be able to understand:

  • The appreciation of the overall complexity of on the process of choosing and purchasing automated systems and robotics
  • The different systems that are out there and some of the developments in the future
  • The world of the automated laboratory

Indicative Content:

Introduction to Moodle

  • Use and navigate the functions of Moodle
  • Explore the Moodle tools.

Introduction

  • Introduction: Defining robotics and Automation
  • History of robotics and automation

Automation Basics 1

  • Automation in Chemistry
  • Tube systems
  • The sample cycle

 

Automation Basics 2

  • Assessing workflow
  • Assessing turnaround time

Automation Basics 3

  • Automation in your laboratory
  • Automation in Haematology
  • Sharing our automation

 

Automation Basics 4

  • Pre-analytical systems
  • Automation in Microbiology
  • Automation in Histopathology
  • Molecular biology

The planning process

  • The Business Case for a pre-analytical system
  • Examining the business case – Are we impressed?
  • Getting committees together
  • The tendering process
  • Project planning
  • Preparing the data
  • A decision at last

Total Laboratory Automation

  • Total Laboratory Automation (TLA) Systems
  • Strengths and Weakness of TLA
  • A short list for TLA
  • Preparing a project plan
  • Installation
  • Evaluating the system

Communication

  • Communication (Keeping everyone informed)
  • Working with companies

Finals

  • Final quiz
  • Final tests